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India Presentation

Frage: India Presentation
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Muss morgen ein referat über Indien auf englisch halten:
habe mehere seite ausm internet zusammengelegt...was sollte ich eventuell noch hinzufügen bzw, anders machen? irgentwelche tipps...verbesserungen?...danke:)

Archeologists also found colourful dishes.
Even today the old Indian writing cannnot be read by us.
The Indians wrote on plates of clay. They had a pictographic writing which was written from right to left.
The definition "Indus culture" is not completely right, because some parts were found near the river Ganges and near the Gujarat coast.
The Indus culture was destroyed by the Aryans, who destroyed the Gangesvalley too, some time later. The advantage of the Aryans was only military, their culture was less developed.
The Indian people who were called "Dasa" were allowed to keep their religion, but they were not allowed to marry an Aryan. The Aryans had their own religion with the god "Indra" that we know from the Veden which is a collection of religious songs and speeches.
The origion of the caste- system must be in India, because nothing like that was ever found in Indo-Europe.

The two main religions of India:

It developed in 1300 BC. It`s a mixture of many different religions and philosophical points of view. The Hinduism has no founder and no place where it is taught.
Three rules are for every school of Hinduism:
1) To hold on the vedes.
2) To belong to one caste.
3) Renicarnate

An dieser Stelle wurde eine Grafik entfernt!
During the Indo- European migrations the Aryans came to India and brought, next to the cattles, also many religious changes.
In 1300 BC they finally wrote the Vedes. These are collections of songs and poems in which they sing for their gods.
Already in the earlier time two schools- one god/ many gods- came into existence.
First there were four castes which divided the people in social groups. Only the Untouchables were taken away from the Hinduism society.
It is not possible to get into a higher caste. Only if you do all things, religion expects from you, it could be that you would be born into a higher caste after death.

The subcontinent has a big problem with illiterates. Today there are about 56% who cannot read or write.

Indian culture is full of interesting folk stories, which were handed down from generation to generation. The stories are not only entertaining, but teach moral lessons. This is probably the reason why storytelling is still popular in India and is an important part of the country´s tradition.

Britain was very important for the country. By the middle of the 19th century Britain was controlled the whole of India – so called the East India Company. It was only legal British trading company until 1813.
India was a colony serving British interests. It gave Britain raw material and a big market for industrial goods. The railway and administration that the British built up, were two of the advantages of British rule.

But India wanted to be free and so they fought for freedom lasted about a century. Mahatma Ghandi was an important leader in the fight for independence. In his peaceful campaigns of civil disobedience he told the Indians not to obey the British government.

Independence came- they won the fight, but they had to pay the price: the country was divided into two seperate states, India with a Hindu majority and Pakistan with a Muslim majority.
At the time of independence India was not a very well developed country.
The revolution didn´t change much for the Indian population but it´s still
one of the poorest countries.

„Thank you for your attention!“


India is located in Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan. Its surface is 3.287.590km2, of which 2.973.190 km2 are land and 314.400 km2 are water. 56% of the land are arable, 1% are permanent crops, 4% are permanent pastures and 23% are forests and woodlands. The highest point of India is the mountain Kanchenjunga (27°N, 88°E), which is 8.598m high. Common natural hazards are droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms and earthquakes.

India has 1.029.991.145 inhabitants, this represents 16% of the world’s population. 33,12% of these are at the age of 0-14 years, 62,2% are at the age of 15-64 years and 4,68% are at the age of 65 and over. 81,3% of the people are Hindu, 12% are Muslim, 2,3% are Christian, 1,9% are Sikh, 2,5% have another religion. Life expectancy is at about 62,22 years for men and 63,53 years for women. There are several different ethnic groups: the Indo-Aryan (72%), Dravidian (25%) and Mongoloid and others (3%). There are many different languages spoken in India, the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people is Hindi. English is the most important language for national, political and commercial communication. Other languages, each spoken by a million or more persons, are Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Sanskrit and Hindustani, a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu, spoken in northern India.

 This picture shows two Carom players. People in India have played Carom for centuries. The
goal of the game is to shoot the disc-shaped stones into a hole at the edge of the playfield. To
win the game, the red stone has to be placed in that hole, too.

 From the male Sikhs, it is expected that they join the Khalsa, a religious and military
brotherhood: They are baptized by drinking sweetened water and receive the name Singh (lion).

Scientists are dependent on archaeological discoveries about the social, cultural and political events of India’s early times, as there aren’t any written recordings. It’s supposed that the inhabitants of the subcontinent during the stone age were assimilated by Dravidian tribes coming from the west. The culture built up by the Dravidians is supposed to correspond to the Mesopotamian or Egyptian culture or even surpass it.

In the middle of the third millennium BC, there was a series of Indo-European invasions into the Dravidian India. The origin of these tribes is unknown, they are usually called Indo-Aryan tribes. Most Dravidians fled to the north and the centre of the Indian peninsula, where the Dravidian language is still used. The Indo-Aryan eventually absorbed the remaining tribes and their culture.

The political history of the centuries after the conquests is mainly unknown.

The Veda, a collection of holy writings of 1200 BC contains information about society, religion and culture. According to the Veda, the combined Indo-Aryan and Dravidian culture was quite remarkable. Their tribal councils were put together according to democratic principles, the women’s social position was higher than the men’s social position, marriage was regarded as holy. The Indo-Aryan had good knowledge about cattle breeding, metalwork and building ships. About the political situation of that time is only known that 16 autonomous states had been founded.

Food and drink differ from culture and region. In the south, rice is the main foodstuff, but in the north, the main foodstuff is “roti” (white bread). The dishes are often strongly spiced. Several types of curries with eggs, fish, meat or vegetables are very popular. Many people only eat vegetarian food for religious reasons. Hindu consider cows as holy. They eat no beef, like the Sikh. Orthodox Muslims generally renounce pork and alcohol.

Indian music is divided into two fields, the north Indian Hindustani and the south Indian Karnatak. Both are based on the combination of melodic tones, the Ragas, and repeating rhythmic cycles, the Talas. This music can be sung or played, either as a solo concert or as accompaniment for theatre and dance.
GAST stellte diese Frage am 23.10.2008 - 20:39

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