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Rosa Parks



Biography:
Rosa Parks was born on 4th February 1913 in Tuskegee and died on 24th October 2005 in Detroit, Michigan.
She has worked for the civil rights movement, which sat down for the equality of blacks.
Her father, James McCauley was carpenter and her mother Leona McCauley teacher.
Two years after Rosas birth her father left the family and short after her mother got pregnant again and they move to Pine Level to Rosas grandparents . In September 1915 Rosas brother Sylvester was born.
She visited a school for afroamericains in Pine Level and after the school had closed she visited the "Industrial School for Girls.
Later she went to "Alabama State Teachers College for Negroes in Montgomery. But because of her sick grandmother she had to quit the study.
In 1931 Rosa McCauley got to know Raymond Parks, who was an afroamericain but because of his light skin some people thought he was white, one year later they got married.
He became involved in the "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People who wanted the abolition of racial discrimination.
After ending her study Rosa didn't get a job and worked as seamstress. She mustn't go to the meetings of the activists Raymond Parks went because for women the participation was considered hazardous.
In 1943 Rosa was the only woman who was involved in an official meeting of the "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in Montgomery and got secretary of Edgar D. Nixon, the president of the NAACP.
In April 1945 Rosa managed to enter the voters list after several attempts.
In the following years Rosa Parks campaigned for several social projects she got consultant of the youth group of the NAACP.
Through Nixon Rosa got to know Clifford and Virginia Durr, white people who campaigned for the rights of african-americans.
In December 1955 it came to the "Montgomery Bus Boykott. Rosa Parks refused to make free a place in the bus for a white. But later I will tell you more about this event and its consequences.
For her commitment in the Civil Rigths Movement she got many awards. For example she
was taken to the "Michigan Women's Hall of Fame and US-President Bill Clinton awards her a golden medal of Honor.
On the 24th october 2005 Rosa Parks died at the age of 92 years in Detroit.

The Historical Background
In the middle of the 20th Century in Alabama prevails a strict racial segregation. There were only school buses for white children. Blacks had to go. Also in trains there were different compartments for whites and blacks. In the public there were signs with the words "Whites Only for example at benches and elevators.
In public buses in Montgomery the first four rows of seats were saved for whites. Blacks mustn't sit on it even there were no whites in the bus. In the middle of the bus blacks could sit, but when whites wanted to sit they were committed to vacate the whole row of seat. When there were whites in the front of the bus, blacks had to solve the ticket and go to the back door. Sometimes they didn't catch it and the bus drivers enjoy it to ditch them on the street.

The Montgomery Bus Boycott
On the 1st December 1955 Rosa Parks was arrested because she refused to make free the seat for a white. The arrest caused a sensation. So that many blacks take the decision to afford civil disobedience. Women's Political Council organized a one day Boycott of buses on the day of the court case. Blacks in Montgomery carpooled, used taxis and walked wherever they wanted to go and didn't use buses. Near 100 % of blacks participated in the boycott. While the boycott 50 activists of the black movement, also Martin Luther King planned a campaign based on the process. After the condemnation of Rosa Parks the boycott broadened. An aggregation, the "Montgomery Improvement Association with Martin Luther King as conduct was founded. On the 5th December Luther King announces a continuation of the boycott with the claims of respectful treatment, same rights for all passengers and that black bus drivers should be set. Also black Taxi companies supported the boycott. Boycotters could use the taxi at a lower price but soon the police stopped it through a minimum price. Thereupon 300 drivers amalgamated to "Car-Pools with holding positions where they offer their carpools.
Whites attempted to stop the boycott with false alarm of an end of the boycott, because the boycott did damage the economics of Montgomery. Also there were many arrests, for example Martin Luther king was arrested. A group of aggrieved parties bewailed the racial segregation with the reason that racial segregation transgresses the 14th Amendment to the Constitution.
On the 19th June 1954 the court of the area declares that the racial segregation at schools is unconstitutional so they demand to stop the segregation on buses. Judges of Montgomery bewailed the judgment at the highest court. But the boycott and the segregation still continued.
On the 13th November 1956 the judgment of the court was confirmed and the boycott abolished.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott was one of the most important victories of the civil rights movement.
Inhalt
-Biografie Rosa Parks (Biography)
-Historischer Hintergrund (Historical Background)
-Montgomery Bus Boycott (867 Wörter)
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21.03.2013 von Sabi93
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