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Questions and Negations

1) Hilfszeitwort (auxiliary):
Formen von "to be" (is, am, are, was, were ...) The car is in the garage Quest.: Is the car in the garage? Negation.: No the car isn't in the garage. Subj.: What is in the garage? Place: Where is in the garage?

2) Modal Verbs (e.g.: can, must, may, might ...):
Fred must repair the car. Quest.: Must Fred repair the car? Neg.: Fred cannot repair the car? Subj.: Who can repair the car? Verb: What must Fred do? Obj.: What must Fred repair?

3) Verb:
a) Fred sells her a second hand car. Quest.: Does Fred sell her a second car? Neg.: Fred doesn't sell her a second hand car. Subj.: Who sells her a second hand car? Prädikat: What does Fred do? Obj1.: What does Fred sell her? Obj2.: Who does Fred sell a second hand car to? To who does Fred sell a car? b) Jean and Fred test Peter's car on the motorway. Quest.: Do Jean and Fred test Peter's car? Neg.: No they don't test Peter's car? Subj.: Who tests Peters car? nach "who" und "what" keine Umschreibung, immer Einzahl P.: What do Jean and Fred do? Obj.: What do Jean and Fred test? Place: Where do they test Peter's car? 2.Fall: Whose car do Jean and Fred test? Wenn der 2. Fall ein Teil des Subj. Ist, keine Umschreibung.

Word Order:
YesterdayJohn sawthe teacherin town. Adverb of timeSubj.Prädik.Obj.adverb of place. Or: John sawthe teacherin townyestersday. Subj.Präd.Obj.adveb of timeadveb of time. Remember: Subjekt-Prädikat-Objekt Adverb of place before adverb of time Das adverb of time kann am Anfang des Satzes stehen. Adverb of manner: Weworkinschoolevery time. Subj.Präd.adverb of manneradverb of placeadverb of time. Or: Herunsquicklyto the station. Subj.Präd.adverb of manneradverb of place. Adverb of frequency: e.g.: always, ever, never, often, usually, often, seldom,.... between subject and prädicate In the morninghealwaysgoesby bus. adverb of timeSubj.adverb of frequencyPräd.. Henevermeetshimin the pub. Subj.adverb of frequencyPräd.Obj.adverb of place. Mind: Adverb of frequency after "to be" Heisneverthere. Subj.Aux.adverb of frequencyadverb of place. My brotherisalwaysfaster than me. Subj.Aux.adverb of frequencyadverb of manner-.

Present Tense
1. Present Tense Simple: I, you, we, they go/work/answer/play. He, she, it goes/works/answers/plays. Question: Do you go to school? Does she go to school? Negation: I don't go to school. She doesn't go to school. The present tense simple is used: 1) allgemein gültige Tatsachen The lesson begins at 7.50. 2) wiederholte Handlungen (repeated actions) Signalwörter: always, usually, sometimes, often, every day, never, ever,..... e.g.: I often take the bus. I sometimes go by bike. 2.Present Tense Progressive: I am writing. You are talking. He is working. We are studying. You are planning. They are discoussing. I am not writing. You aren't talking. He isn't working. We aren't studying. You aren't planning. They aren't discoussin Am I writing? Are you talking? Is he working? Are we studying? Are you planning? Are you discoussing?
The present tense progressive is used: 1) for activities that are happening at this moment of speaking. Signalwörter: now, just, at the moment, look, listen 2)for discribing pictures The present tense progressive is not used: 1) repeated actions 2) something valied all the time 3) with words of:a) sense: see, hear, smell, taste b) emotion: like, love, dislike, wish, want, hate c) words which include duration: know, forget, understand, remember, last, belong to, own Mind: Present tense progressive may have Future meaning when we have verb of motion (go/drive/travel/fly....) + time Tomorrow we are flying to the Easterisland. On the evening we are going to the dumplings inn.

1) We use some in positive sentences: compounds(Zusammensetzungen): somebody someone something somewhere somehow Joe bought some new CDs. Somebody has rang. There's someone at the door. There's something over there. My back must be somewhere. We will manage somehow. 2) We use some in Questions where we expect the answer "yes". Would you like some more tea? 3) We use any in negative sentences. anybody anyone anything anywhere They havn't got anything to do. I don't like any teacher. I can't see anything I don't make any mistakes. He left without saying anything. 4) We use any in questions we expect the answer "no". Did anybody do the homework? Is anyone there? 5) We use any in sentences with "if". If anybody has a question, then ask. 6) We use it in positive sentences to express that you can have everthing you want to. One-Ones: We use one and ones um Wortwiederholungen zu vermeiden. One; ersetzt ein Hauptwort in der Einzahl Ones; ersetzt ein Hauptwort in der Mehrzahl You can choose between three T-shirts. I'll take the pink one.

Passive Voice:
Present tense simple: Sby-Objekt OS Aktiv:The technician designs a machine. Passiv:The machine is designed by the technician. Aktiv:The trademan sells the machines. Passiv:The machines are sold by the trademan. Present tens progressive: Aktiv:The operator is reading the instructions. Passiv:The instructions are being read by the operator. Aktiv:An other man is replaceing a component. Passiv:A component is being replaced by an other man. Past tense simple: Aktiv:Tony sold his car last week. Passiv:Last week his car was sold by Tony. Aktiv:They cleaned the windows a week ago. Passiv:The windows were cleaned by them a week ago. Past tense progressive: Aktiv:They were showing an interesting film on TV. Passiv:The interesting film was being shown on TV. Aktiv:We were writing our second test. Passiv:Our second test was being written by us. Modal verbs: Aktiv:We can answer the questions. Passiv:The questions can be answered by us. Aktiv:They must do the homework. Passiv:The work must be done by them.

Past Tense:
1.Past Tense Simple: 1.1.Regular Words: work-worked-worked ask-asked-asked negation: did not work did not ask Question: did you work? Did you ask? 1.2.Irregular Words: say-said-said think-thought-thought negation: did not say did not think question: did you say? did you think? The past tense simple is used to tell what happened in the past and to express that this was complete. I met Jean last week. (When did you meet her?) Last Friday we wrote a maths test. (When did you write a Maths test?) Key Words: Yesterday, last week, last month a minute ago, a year ago, in 2004,..... 2.Past Tense Progressive: I, he, she, it was playing. We, you, they were playing. question: Was he, she, it ,I playing? Were we, you, they studying? negation: No, I,he, she, it wasn't playing. No, we, you, they were studying. The past tense progressive is used when: a) a longer action was still going on at the given moment of time. At five o'clock in the morning, the lights were still burning. b) two actions were taking place at the same time (while/when) While we were working hard, he was sleeping in the deckchair. c) a longer action was interrupted by a shorter action. They were celebrating his birthday when the fire broke out. signal wordscompare past simple No progressive formcompare present progressive

The Future Tense:
1) shall/will +infinitive: I/We shall,will come. You/He/She/It will come. You/They will come. shortform: I'll, You'll, They'll, We'll questions: Will I/You/He/She/It/They come? negation: I/You/He/She/It/They won't come. The "will future" is used: a) uncertainly: I think I'll be at home by 9 o'clock. They hope they'll get a well paid job. b) "for future": One day he'll be an engeneer. c) conditional sentences: If you invite them, they will come. 2) "going to future" + infinive: a) intention or certainly: I'm going to study hard next year. b) immediate future: Be quiet, he is going to begin his lecture. 3) present continious tense: The present continious is used with verbs of motion when the time is mention. Verbs of motion: drive, run, travel, arrive, go He is travelling to Crewe tomorrow. Are you going to the disco tonight? I'm seeing him on Friday. 4) Present Tense Simple: with timetable/schedule The train to Caterham leaves at 6:40.

Present Perfect Tense:
1.Present Perfect Tense Simple: have/has + past participle I/You/We/They have gone. He/She/It has gone. question: have/has + Persent Pronoun + Past Participle Have you answered? Has he began with the lesson? negation: have/has + not + Past Participle You haven't seen anything. You haven't known anything. The Present Perfect Simple is used: a) for activities/actions/events that bagan in the Past an go on to the Present: We have been there since 8 o'clock. I have known this for a while. b) for activities/actions/events that happened in the Past and the results/effects can be seen in the Present. I have studied the words carefully. I am quite confident to pass the test. Key Words: The Present Perfect Tense (Simple and Progressive) Is often used with words such: Today, this week, this year, so far, up to now, often, always, never, ever, not yet, yet, recently, since, for,.......... for...seit (Zeitraum, Zeitspanne): since...seit (Zeitpunkt): I haven't met him for a month. He hasn't spoken a word since Monday.
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!ago; for-Past Tense!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
2.Present Perfect Progressive: has/have been + Present Participle I have been talking. He has been waiting. They have been working. question: Have you been working? negation: She hasn't been playing. The Present Perfect Progressive is used: For actions which began in the past, went on (without interruption) and is still going on at the moment of speakingunfinished He has been talking for an hour now. How long have you been working here? Remember no Progressive: · · · · hear, taste, smell, see wish, want, remember, last, seem, mean, remember know, posess, own love, like, dislike, hate

Past Perfect Tense:
1. Past Perfect Simple: had + Past Participle had spoken had found had seen had studied had had questions: had he lost? had he had? Had they promised? negation: hadn't walked hadn't waited The Past Perfect Simple is used: The past perfect tense describes an action which had been completed before another one in past. Key Words: after, before, as After they had finished their dinner they drank a cup of coffee. Before anyone could stop him he had made that mistakes. As he had never been in that place before he got lost. Past perfect tense is after used in if- (condinitional) clauses. If we had the money we would have bought an oldtimer. If we had received the message earlier we would have decided differently. Past perfect tense is often used in reported speech. He said, "Last year we earned little money" He said that they had earned little money in the year before. 2. Past Perfect Progressive We had been studying. I had been waiting They had been doing research She had been searching

Conditional (IF ­ Sentences):
Bedingungssätze if......wenn, falls (unless) if not......wenn nicht, falls nicht I. It is likely/probably that... If + Present Tense//Future Tense (Future Tense can be replaced by can/may/imperative) If he invites me, I'll come. We'll come, unless it rains. If he hasn't got any time you may come. If you can't come, tell me. II.a) It is possible but not very possible (likely): If + Past Tense//1th Conditional (Conditional Present) (would + infinitive) If he called, he would get a lot of information. If he stopped watching TV, he could begin with his work. II.b) This is unreal: If + was (were)//would + infinitive If he was (were) an engineer, he would get the job. If I were you, I'd study engineering. III. It Did not happen and it's impossible now: If + Past Perfect Tense//2nd Conditional (Conditional Perfect) If he had drunk alcohol, he would have had a lot of problems. If he had had enough money, he would have bought a new computer.
! No WOULD and SHOULD after IF !

Reported (indirekt) Speech:
I. Introduction in Present (Present Perfect, Future) Tense: No change of Tenses He says, "I want to become an engineer." He says (that) he wants to become an engineer. She says, "I'll work hard for it." She says (that) she'll work hard for it. Changes are necessary for: Pronouns: I, my he, his//she, her And Adverbs: We, our they, their (you, your they, their) this that these those here there now then yesterday day before tomorrow the next day today that day ago before II. Introduction in Past Tense or Past Perfect Tense: Change of Tenses Present Tense Past Tense He said, "I know the answer." He said (that) he knew the answer. Past Tense Past Perfect Tense She said, "I applied for this job." She said (that) she had applied for that job. Present Perfect Tense Past Perfect Tense He said, "I have found the solution." He said (that) he had found the solution. Future Tense Conditional She said, "We will be in time." She said (that) they would be in time. Present Tense Progressive Past Tense Progressive He said, "We're doing an exciting exercise." He said (that) they were doing an exciting exercise. Past Tense Progressive Past Perfect Progressive He said, "It was raining all day." He said (that) it had been raining all day.

III. Indirect Command:
Introducted by tell to/order to/ask to command/want to + infinitive
We said, "Clean the desk please." He asked me to clean the desk.
She said, "Leave the room." She told us to leave the room.
We said, "Let's go home." We suggested that we should go home.

IV. Indirect Question:
Change word order! (regular S,P,O) Introduce with: ask, inquire, wonder... +Interrogative Pronouns e.g. when, why, how, who... OR: if-whether
He asked, "When did you come home?" He asked when he had come home.
She asked, "What do you do on Saturdays?" She asked what he did on Saturdays.
He asked, "Can you lend me a few ?" He asked if he could lend him a few .

Important to know (Prepositions):
among unter, in mitten, zwischen (mehr als zwei) You are among friends here. between Peter is sitting between you and me. during I went to Italy during the holidays. while während (contrast) während, in (zeitlich) zwischen (zweien)
While we were practicing difficult words, they were enjoying themselves in the workshop. for I stayed there for three weeks. for [2] He has been attending this school for 2 years. since He have been attending this school since 2004. into She walked into the room. in The test takes place in the classroom. out of He rushed out of the house. from He jumped from the place. This letter from your father. off Keep off the grass. weg ...von aus, von, von .... herunter aus (heraus) im hinein seit (Zeitpunkt) seit (Zeitraum) lang (zeitlich)
till, until Don't wait until it's too late. as far as He walked as far as the village. before He arrived just before me. before, in front of He stood in front of me. behind Look behind you. after It was very quiet after the test. over The plane was right over our heads. under The dog is sitting under the table. above Above sea-level. below Below sea-level. except Everybody was present except Andrew. apart from, besides
bis (zeitlich)
bis (örtlich)
vor (zeitlich)
vor (örtlich)
hinter (örtlich)
nach (zeitlich)
über (senkrecht darüber)
unter (örtlich)
über (höher als)
unter (tiefer als)
abgesehen von, neben Apart from (Besides) Colin there were three boys.
I) Present Participle (Mittelwort der Gegenwart ­ ing-Form)
active: writing passive: written

I) a) as adjective:
The running water, the flying bird...

I) b) as progressive form:
I am going to school now.

I) c) nach gewissen Zeitwörtern:
1) Wahrnehmung: watch, hear, notice, feel, listen to, see I saw the rocket rising. ...wie sie empor stieg I heard her shouting for help. ...wie sie um Hilfe rief. They didn't notice us watching them. ...dass wir sie beobachten. He felt his heart beating. ...wie das Herz klopft. 2) Ruhe und Bewegung: stand, sit, remain, lie, stay ; go, come, walk We stood there waiting for the bus. ...und warteten. He came running along the street. He lay in a deckchair reading. ...und las. He remained sitting. ...blieb sitzen.

II) Present Participle instead of subordinate clauses:
a) instead of relative clauses: Do you know the man who is talking to Mr. Jones? Do you know the man talking to Mr. Jones? The man who lived there spoke English. The man living there spoke English. The road which leads to London is good. The road leading to London is good.
b) instead of adverbial clauses (Umstands-Nebensätze): 1) time: When he was crossing the street, he was run over by a lorry. (While) crossing the street, he was run over by a lorry. When she saw the accident, my aunt fainted. (When) seeing the accident, my aunt fainted. Remember: while, when, after are often left out before participles 2) reason: As neutrons have no electrical charge, they hit the nuclei of other atoms. Having no electrical charge, neutrons ate able to hit the nuclei of other atoms. Since we were very tired, we left early. Being very tired, we left early. Because he felt ill, he didn't go to work. Feeling ill, he didn't go to work. Remember: As, since, because are always omitted before participles. 3) conditions: If a uranium atom is hit by a neutron, it is split. If hit by a neutron, a uranium atom is split. Remember: If and Unless mustn't be ommited.
Gerund (hauptwörtlich gebrauchtes Zeitwort)
D: lessen ­ das Lesen E: read ­ the reading

We use it in English:
a) as a noun (Hauptwort): I like going to school. Learning a foreign language is important. b) after possessives; my, your, his, our... : I like his working carefully. c) after many verbs: e.g.: begin, continue, stop, avoid, enjoy, like, remember, dislike, finish, practise, risk, suggest, miss, mind, deny, admit, imagine,... Imagine writing a good test. Continue practicing. I remember reading this a long time ago. d) after certain phrases: it's no use, can't help (kann nicht anders), can't stand, to like, to be worth, to be good at, what about, to be keen on (wild auf etwas sein), tobe fond of, to be used to, to be interested in, to be famous for, to be tired of (etwas satt haben), to worry about,... What about learning these expressions? What you mind listening? They couldn't help smiling. e) after certain prepositions: Thank you for helping us. He left without saying a word. He earns his living by selling computers. In spite of running we didn't catch the train. Instead of writing the text we copied. f) verbs + prepositions: to apologise for (sich entschuldigen), begin by (etwas machen), complain about (über etwas beschweren), consist of (bestehen aus), go on/keep on (weitermachen), prevent from (hindern an), spend on (ausgeben für), take part in (Teilnehmen an), agree with (zustimmen), to be afraid of (Angst haben vor), to look forward to (freuen auf), to care
for (um etwas kümmern), depend on (abhängen von), give up (aufgeben), insist on (bestehen auf), succeed in (Erfolg haben in), talk about (darüber sprechen), have the opportunity of (die Möglichkeit haben), to rely on (auf etwas verlassen), to be accused of (wurden beschuldigt),... We rely on you (your) completing your studies successful. I am used to getting up at 545. He was accused of letting his friends down.

The gerund is used to make sentences shorter:
He remembered that he had seen her. He remembered seeing her. /One subject I liked it when he did his homework properly. I liked his doing his homework properly. /2 Subjekts We are used that Herbert is the boss. We are used to Herbert being the boss.

The gerund is used instead of sentences expressing:
time: When I saw her, I greeted her. On seeing her, I greeted her. when on Before they went home they made a phone call. Before going home they made a phone call. reason: Don't be angry because I said that. Don't be angry for me (my) saying that. manner: He didn't answer and left. He left without answering. If you work hard you'll succeed. By working hard you'll succeed. others: She didn't talk much but she began work immediately. Instead of talking much she began working immediately. Although he is rather slim, he can lift heavy weights. In spite of being rather slim he can lift heavy weights.
Questions and Negations, Word Order, Present Tense, SOME-ANY-ONE, Passive Voice, Past Tense, The Future Tense, Present Perfect Tense, Past Perfect Tense, Conditional (IF – Sentences), Reported (indirekt) Speech, Important to know (Prepositions), Present Participle, Gerund (3350 Wörter)
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