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Referat: Adjective the use:

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Adjective



the use:
Adjectives describe the qualities and characteristics of people, things, ideas, etc.
You can use it attributive (before a noun) or predicative (after certain verbs like appear, be, become, feel, get, grow, look, remain, seem, sound, stay and taste).
Examples: attributive: We’ve got a blue car.
predicative: Our car is blue.
Some adjectives only can be used predicatively. (afraid, alive, alone, asleep, glad, pleased, sorry, ill, upset, and well / fine)
Before nouns we have to use adjectives with similar meanings (e.g. frightened instead of afraid)
Some adjectives only can be used attributively. (chief, elder / eldest, former, main, sole and utter)

Comparison:

Regular:
There are two kinds of comparison: one with -er / -est and one with more / most.
1. with “-er / -est”: - one syllable adjectives (e.g. small ( smaller ( smallest)
- two syllable adjectives ending in “-y” (e.g. silly ( sillier ( silliest).
[When a single constant (-p, -b, -t, -d, -g, -m, -n) at the end of a word follows a single vowel letter, we double the constant. (e.g. fat ( fatter ( fattest). But we don’t double when it follows either another constant (e.g. fast ( faster ( fastest) or two vowel letters (clean ( cleanest ( cleaner).
We leave out a silent -e at the end of the word (nice ( nicer ( nicest).

And -y changes to -i.]
2. with “more / most”: - two syllable adjectives not ending in “-y” (e.g. famous ( more famous ( most famous)
- adjectives with more than two syllables (e.g. expensive ( more expensive ( most expensive).

Irregular:
The adjectives good, bad and far have irregular comparisons and superlatives forms.
comparative superlative good better best bad worse worst far farther / further farthest / furthest
Adverbs

Kinds of adverbs:
- Adverbs of manner tell you how something happens or is done (e.g. quickly, happily).
- Adverbs of place refer to a place or a direction (e.g. here, there).
- Adverbs of time refer to a point of time or a period of time (e.g. soon, today)
- Adverbs of frequency tell us how often something happens or is done (e.g. regularly, never).
- Adverbs of degree are used before adjectives and other adverbs (e.g. really nice, terribly slowly) and with some verbs (e.g. I totally disagree with that.).
- Sentence adverbs refer to a whole sentence or clause (e.g. Fortunately I wasn’t hurt.).

Forms:

There are different forms from adverbs:
- which are formed from adjectives (by ending -ly) (e.g. nervous ( nervously)
- which have the same form as adjectives (e.g. fast ( fast)
- which aren’t formed from adjectives (e.g. always, now)
- which are adverbial phrases (e.g. in the evening)

Comparison:
In English the comparative forms of adverbs are sued only occasionally, the superlative forms aren’t often used at all. But we form the forms of the comparison of adverbs on the same way as we do with adjectives.
The adverbs well, badly, far, much and (a) little have irregular forms.
comparative superlative well better best badly worse worst far farther / further farthest / furthest much more most (a) little less least
Adjective (( Adverbs
An adjective modifies a noun (e.g. careful driver) or a pronoun (e.g. he was nervous).
An adverb can modify a verb (e.g. He drives carefully), an adjective (e.g. he is extremely nervous), another adverb (e.g. very well), a quantifier (e.g. quite a lot of) or a whole sentence (e.g. Fortunately, the bus was late too.)

Adverbs and Adjectives after certain verbs:
After a verb which express a state or a quality we use an adjective. And we use an adjective after verbs which express a change or state. (Such verbs mean the same as the German wollen.)
After the verbs fell, look, smell, sound and taste we can use either an adjective or an adverb. An adjective we use when we talk about a state or quality and an adverb when we talk about an action.
Inhalt
Grammatik: Der Gebrauch, die Formen und die Steigerung von Adjektiven und Adverbien und Gegenüberstellung (664 Wörter)
Hochgeladen
28.04.2008 von Geschichte234
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